NSTR has the following important species of wild animals
Please click on the TITLE of the Species to see the description
Tiger: - Panthera tigers
Local Names:- Pedda Pulee (Telugu), Bagh (Hindi)
The tiger has a bright orange coat with black stripes, black ears, each with one white spot and a long, banded tail. The tiger prefers deciduous, thorn and evergreen forests, mangroves and grasslands. Usually tigers are identified by their telltale signs such as pugmarks and scrape marks. A tiger’s pugmarks show the impression of only the toes and the great pad behind them. There is no trace of sole or heel because it walks on its toes.
A tiger’s jaws, its claws, and the great canine teeth are greatly adapted to seize, hold and kill prey. While hunting, the eyes and ears guide a tiger. Its stripes provide a good camouflage. An adult tiger requires 3500 kg of prey per year, which it takes in around 43 kills (an equivalent of 1 buffalo, 2 cows, 3 sambar, 4 barasingha, 5 gaur, and 28 chitals).
To escape heat, tigers take shelter in caves or lie partly submerged in water. A tigress gives birth to her young ones in caves or under a rough shelter of rocks. The cubs are usually born blind and helpless. The tigress take care of the cubs while the tiger deserts the family before or soon after the cubs are born.
It measures average length of a typical tiger 280 cm (male) and 260 cm (female). The average weight is 180 – 230 kg (male) and 185 kg (female).
Grey jungle fowl: Gallus sonneratii
It inhabits the forests and scrub and is ancestral to the domestic fowl. It is stocky built, with round wings and sturdy legs. Males have spurs which are claw like projection at the back of the cock’s leg. It is restricted to the well wooded parts mixed with bamboo and the thick scrub lands of the sanctuary. Red jungle fowl is not found in this sanctuary.
Pea fowls: Pavo cristatus
They are found as flocks of 3-6 with a cock and hens. After breeding season, segregated parties of adult males and females with their immature broods are commonly seen. These birds have extremely good eye sighting and hearing.
Mouse Deer: - Tragulus mimenna
Local Names:- Mooshika Jinka (Telugu), Pisora, Pisura (Hindi).
This is a tiny little shy deer. It is characterized by slender limbs, high hindquarters, prominent tusks, olive brown coat with minute yellow spots on it and 3 white stripes on the throat. The flank is marked with rows of white or buff coloured spots, which extend into longitudinal bands over its body. The underparts have whitish shade. The eyes are large and surrounded by a white patch.
Mouse deer has a 3-chambered stomach and 4 well developed toes. Each foot with bones of side toes are complete. This character is in contrast to other ruminants, in which some of these bones are imperfect and missing. It comes out of its shelter to feed in the mornings and at dusk times.
Chinkara or Indian Gazelle is a small, slender and gracefully built animal with chestnut colour. It is seen in degraded forest areas around habitations in the forests in herds of 5 to 12. It lives in thin forested areas. It prefers ravines, broken country, rocky areas, scrub covered hills, and the sand dunes. It's food consists of grass, leaves and succulent fruits such as pumpkins, melons etc. Gives birth to one or two fawns. It is enlisted in Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection) Act.
The Sambar is the largest deer in South East Asia. It is found in large number both in dry and moist habitats in this Tiger Reserve. It is being predominantly a forest animal, coming out into the open occasionally at the times of dusk.
In NSTR, Sambar subsists on wide variety of plants, the fruits of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica), Terminalia bellarica and the bark of Adina cordifolia, Mahuva, Tendu (Diospyrous melanoxylon), Chironji (Buchanania latifolia), Regu (Zizyphus jujube, Terminalia bellarica and pods of numerous species of Acacia arabica, Acacia leucophlea and of the Tamarind etc. etc.
Males have a dark brownish to black colour coat and 20-25 inches long straight horns, which are loosely wound about the longitudinal axis, with ridges across. Sexual dimorphism is distinct. Females are usually hornless. They occur in plain areas and avoid forest or hill tracts. Black bucks remain in groups of 15-50 individuals.
It measures an average buck weighs about 25-45 kg.
Four-Horned Antelope or Chowsingha: - Tetracerus quadricornis
Local Names:- Konda Gorre (Telugu), Chowsingha, Chowka, Jungli Bakri (Hindi)
The most striking feature of Chowsingha is the presence of two pairs of horns. The coat has dull reddish brown above and white below with a dark stripe running down the front of each leg. Old bucks are often yellowish. The posterior horns are usually 8-10 cm long and the anterior ones are just 1-1.25 cm long. It has a pair of well developed glands between the false hooves of the hind legs in both the sexes.
It measures the smallest antelope in Asia. The height of the average male is 65 cm at the shoulder level and weighs 16 Kg.
Nilgai or Blue Bull: - Boselaphus tragocamelus
Local Names:- Manu bothu (Telugu), Nilgai, Roz, Rojra, Nil (Hindi)
It is a large animal with a horse like build, high withers and low rump. Male has a coarse iron grey coat while the female and the calves have chestnut or tawny coats. It has a white ring below each fetlock and two white spots on each cheek. The chin, lips, inside of the ears and the under surfaces of the tail have white color. Dark short manes are present in both sexes. The male has a distinct tuft of stiff black hairs on the throat and stout cone like keeled horns with a triangular base and circular tips. The average height of males is 130-140 cm. The females are much smaller. The horns measure 20 cm.
Indian Wild boar or Wild Pig: - Sus cristatus
Local Names:- Adavi pandi (Telugu), Jangli Suar, Badajanwar, Burajanwar (Hindi)
A well-grown wild boar weighs 230 kg and measures 3 ft in height with a coarse coat, which develops into a crest on the spine and becomes thinner down the back. The wild boar has blackish grey or rusty brown coat with white hairs on its body. The young ones have peculiar black or dark brown stripes. The upper and lower tusks or ‘tushes’ curve outward and project from the mouth. This is an intelligent and ferocious. It generally lives in scrub jungles, grasslands and forest areas.
Sloth Bear: - Melursus ursinus
Local Names:- Reench (Hindi), Elugu Bunti, Guddelugu (Telugu).
It is a long, shaggy, nocturnal animal which has blackish brown fur, small eyes, a protruding snout and large loose lips. The tips of its feet and muzzle are dirty white or yellowish, while the claws are ivory white. The breast has a white coloured V-shaped patch. It usually attains a height of 2 m. It has broad, naked soled feet, which helps it secure a better grip on tree trunks and branches. It prefers living away from human habitations, in the forests, where there is sufficient food.
Bonnet Macaque: - Macaca radiata
Local Names:- Kothi (Telugu), Bandar (Hindi).
It is a long tailed monkey with no whiskers (except straggling hair) or beard, and a cap of long dark hair, radiating from a whorl on the crown, which is short and neatly parted in the centre of the forehead. It has brown colour but paler below, with a flesh coloured face, with a tail as long as the head and body. The coat has lustrous olive brown to buff grey.
It measures less than 2ft high. Males weigh 6-9 kg., while female weigh 3-4 kg.
Indian Hare or Black Naped Hare: - Lepus nigricollis
Local Names:-Kundelu, Chevula Pilli (Telugu), Khargosh (Hindi)
It is nocturnal. It has large ears, prominent eyes, coarse fur, and a distinct black or dark brown patch on the back of its neck from ear to shoulder. Its short, blunt tail is tipped black on the upper side. The coat has rufous brown or light brown color. Underparts are whitish. It has an average body length of 40-50 cm in length and weighs 2-2.3 kg.
It inhabits bushes, grasslands and jungles alternating with cultivated plains. It prefers to eat grass. The chief predators of black napped hare are wild cats, dogs, foxes, mongooses, etc.
Indian Giant Squirrel: - Ratufa indica
Local Names:-Pedda Udutha (Telugu), Karrat, Rasu (Hindi)
It has a colour coat in three shades-bright brown, dark brown limbs and buff. It has light brown eyes, tufted ears, and a flesh coloured snub nose. The face, underparts and the paws are whitish or buff coloured. Tail has red, black or buff colour. Its body is 50 cm and tail is almost 30 cm long. It is generally found in the mixed deciduous, moist deciduous and evergreen forests. It is arboreal in habitat. It feeds fruits, nuts, bark, gum, insects etc., The large globular nest is built in trees using twigs, and leave.
Indian Porcupine: - Hystrix indica
Local Names:-Mulla Pandi, Yedu (Telugu), Sayal (Hindi)
It is a moderate sized rodent, 70-90 cm in length, is easily recognized by its sharp, long quills. Each quill measures 15-30 cm and has alternate white and black transverse rings. It weighs 11-18 kg. It lives in the rocky hillsides, open land and forest areas, living in burrows and caves. Its food mainly consists of grains, roots, fruits and vegetables. It can gnaw bones and dropped deer antlers. This suffices the body’s calcium requirement and is utilised for the growth of quills. When alarmed, it erects its quills and rattles the hollow tail quills. It is known to rush backwards at a great speed and dash its hind quarters against the enemy, thereby driving its quills deep into its enemy’s body. The quills so damaged are dislodged and replaced with new quills.
Common Mongoose: - Herpestes edwardsi
Local Names:- Mungisa (Telugu), Mangus, Newal, Newara (Hindi)
It has yellowish grey colour with the grizzled coat having a ‘pepper and salt’ tinge. Its yellow-red tipped tail is as long as the body length. It is about 90 cm long of which the tail measures 45 cm. It weighs about 1.4 kg. It lives in the open scrublands, hedgerows and thickets. It lives under the rocks or bushes or in the hollows of a tree trunk. It is a diurnal animal. It feeds on rice, mice, snakes, lizards, frogs, bird eggs, insects and even on plant roots and fruits.
Jackal: - Canis aureus
Local Names:- Nakka (Telugu), Gidhad, Kola (Hindi)
It is smaller animal than an ordinary pariah dog, with shorter ears and a bushy tail with a tan coat mixed with black. The tip of the tail is black. A full-grown individual measures 38-43 cm in height, the length of head and body is 60-75 cm, while tail measures 20-27 cm. It weighs 8-11 kg. It gives out a long, eerie howl after nightfall. It lives in humid forests, dry open plains, deserts. It occupies holes in the ground in dense scrub and grass. It is a nocturnal animal. It lives alone or in pairs. Cubs are born throughout the year in any natural shelter. The average life span is 12 years.
Indian Fox: - Vulpes bengalensis
Local Names:- Gunta Nakka, Konka Nakka (Telugu), Lomri (Hindi)
The Indian fox has large ears, slender nose and limbs, which are rufous while the rest of the fur is grey coloured. Its tail is 25-35 cm long, bushy and tipped with black. The underparts are lighter in tone. The head and body length is 45-60 cm, while the average weight is 1.8-3.2 kg. It prefers wastelands, scrublands and rocky hills and occupy burrows dug by itself. The burrow is provided with several openings. It is nocturnal.
The Indian wild dog has a bright rust red coat with lighter under parts, rounded ears, bushy tail with a purple-black tip and hair between the toes. It is easily distinguished from the other members of the dog family in having 6 molars instead of 7 and 12-14 teats instead of the usual 10. An adult measures 43-55 cm at the shoulder. Length of the head and body measures 90 cm while the tail is 40-43 cm long. Males weigh about 20 kg while females are lighter. It lives in forests in packs of 10-15 individuals. It resembles domestic dog in size.
Jungle Cat: - Felis chaus
Local Names:-Junca Pilli (Telugu), Khatas, Jungli billi (Hindi)
It is larger than a domestic cat, with longer legs and a short tail that ends above the hock. Ears often have a rudimentary tuft. The general colour is light reddish grey or greyish brown, with few or no dark markings except 2 to 3 dark stripes on the upper forelimbs, a black tail tip and a few rings preceding it. The eyes have a black tear stripe. Head and body measure 2 ft in length and the tail is less than 1 ft long. It weighs around 6 kg. Completely black individuals are occasionally found. It frequents open country and grass cover, crops, woodlands for hunting birds and small mammals.
Leopard Cat: - Prionailurus bengalensis
Local Names:- Chiruta gurtulugala pilli (Telugu), Chitah Billi (Hindi)
The leopard cats size like that of domestic cat and is characterized by a yellowish brown body, with black or dark brown spots and whitish underparts. The spots are arranged to form a regular line along the body or may merge into longitudinal bands. There are four distinct bands running from the crown over the neck, which forms elongated spots on the shoulder. A pair of horizontal cheek stripes is quite prominent. The head and body measures 60 cm and it weighs 3-4 kg. It lives in forest and occupy tree hollows.
Fishing Cat or Large Tiger Cat: - Prionailurus viverrina
Local Names:- Chapalu Tiney Pilli (Telugu), Bagh-dasha, Banbiral, Baraun (Hindi)
The fishing cat is one of lesser cats. It is much bigger than a domestic cat, with a longer head and a shorter tail. Its fur is short, coarse and dull earthy grey with elongated brownish black spots of varying sizes and distinctness. The lower parts of the body have spots. Its tail has distinct black rings. Head and body measure about 70-100 cm and the tail is about 30 cm in length. The adult weighs between 11 and 15 kg. It lives close to water bodies from where it derives its food, usually fish and waterfowl. It can also kill birds, dogs, sheep and calves. It is very common in the mangrove forests of Andhra Pradesh.
Chital or Spotted Deer: Axis axis
Local Names: - Duppi, Jinka (Telugu), Chital (Hindi)
Chital is sighted in open areas of sanctuary near habitations and plantations in groups of 8 to 100. Chital eat both grass and browse. Grass provide the bulk of its diet in all seasons. Its favored forage is green grass less than 10 cm height, but when young shoots are unavailable, the animals nip the blade tips and flowering heads off the tall, coarse grasses also.
A minimum of 30-40 species of grasses and grass like plants, including bamboo of the plains and in the forests are grazed by Chital. Browse includes the leaves from a number of trees, shrubs, vines and forbs as well as several kinds of fruit, such as Zizyphus, Ficus, Cordia myxa, Syzygium cumini.
Common Langur or Hanuman Monkey: - Semnopithecus entellus
Local Names:- Kondamucchu (Telugu), Langur, Hanuman (Hindi).
It is a long limbed, long tailed, black-faced monkey. The body has pale dirty and straw colour, or ashy grey, darker on the shoulders and rump, paler on the head and lower parts. Hands, feet and face are black in color.
It measures 2 to 2.5 ft high. Tail is 3 to 3.25 ft long. It weighs 9-16 kg.
Common Leopard: - Panthera pardus
Local Names:- Chiruta Puli (Telugu), Tendua (Hindi)
It is a sleek, short-haired animal with a fulvous or bright coat marked with small close-set black rosettes. Leopard lives both in open forest and thick forests. It is extremely watchful and stealthy with well-developed sight and hearing powers. Leopards around villages feed on cattle, sheep, poultry, goats and dogs, around villages and prey on deer, monkeys, porcupines, birds and reptiles in forest. Its ability to climb trees with ease enables it to attack arboreal animals.
The average adult male is 7 feet long, and weighs 65-70 kg, while the female is 6 feet long and weights 50-55 kg. It follows the tracks of animals through the forest or awaits its prey in hiding. It leaps on its prey and seizes it by the throat until the prey dies of suffocation. It then drags its prey up a tree or to some other place of security, where it can feed upon it leisurely. Leopard breeds throughout the year.